Researchers have identified more reasons to quit smoking and to alert any clients who do smoke. A recent research review on smoking and musculoskeletal injury risk in military trainees found that for those who smoked, injury risk was 31% higher for men and 23% higher for women. The risk grew as smoking levels increased. For example, among the heaviest smokers, risk increased up to 84% for men and up to 56% for women.

This review was limited to military service members, who have a higher incidence of smoking than civilians. Study authors noted that the relationship was associational and that not all studies controlled for other factors, such as alcohol use, fitness and body mass index. However, the consistency and strength of the association and the fact that it was found among both men and women and reflected a dose-response relationship strengthen the finding that smokers are at increased risk of musculoskeletal injury.

The study is published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (2017; doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001349).

Shirley Archer, JD, MA

Shirley Archer, JD, MA

Shirley Archer, JD, MA, is an internationally acknowledged integrative health and mindfulness specialist, best-selling author of 16 fitness and wellness books translated into multiple languages and sold worldwide, award-winning health journalist, contributing editor to Fitness Journal, media spokesperson, and IDEA's 2008 Fitness Instructor of the Year. She's a 25-year industry veteran and former health and fitness educator at the Stanford Prevention Research Center, who has served on multiple industry committees and co-authored trade books and manuals for ACE, ACSM and YMCA of the USA. She has appeared on TV worldwide and was a featured trainer on America's Next Top Model.

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