You’re a student of the body, committed to helping people improve their functional capacity and independence. Human movement is complex and uniquely individual. From a physical perspective, joint structure, neurological patterning, muscles, ligaments, tendons, fascia and skin all affect movement. Psychological and emotional factors may also cause restrictions.

Through various training methods, fitness professionals can guide clients and class participants to overcome their limitations and improve performance in everyday life and athletic endeavors. Yoga, as both a philosophy and a physical practice, is one valuable tool to consider integrating into your training programs to help clients find and release tension—and thus discover more efficient movement.

In the Western world, the most popular forms of yoga center on the physical practice of various postures (asanas) to increase strength, balance, flexibility and mindfulness. Some styles are more relaxing and meditative, others more athletic and strengthening. Either way, yoga is an exploration of self. Practicing asanas is about helping people to tune into their bodies, not about forcing their bodies into poses (Clark 2016).

Asana practice offers numerous benefits, including better control and awareness of breath; increased strength, stability and flexibility; and reduced anxiety, pain and discomfort. Results from one study revealed that therapeutic yoga, or “the application of yoga postures and practice to the treatment of health conditions,” enhanced strength and flexibility, improved cardiovascular function, promoted recovery from and treatment of addiction, reduced stress and chronic pain, and enhanced “overall well-being and quality of life” (Woodyard 2011).

Keep reading to find out how yoga can be strategically used in concert with exercise physiology tenets to identify common postural issues that cause movement limitations for clients. Learn how taking a biomechanical approach to yoga offers an understanding of the interrelationships among joint structure, muscles and movement and how yoga postures can release tension, restore mobility, enhance stability and rebalance the body.

Yoga and Posture Assessment

Yoga’s history is deep and vast. This ancient physical, philosophical and spiritual practice has many branches, including physical postures, breath work, meditation and study, among other disciplines. The Indian sage Patanjali des­cribed eight equally impor­tant and interconnected “limbs” of yoga, consisting of moral codes, self-purification and study, yoga postures, breath control, sense control, concentration, meditation, and contemplation.

In its complete form, yoga is a way of life. Life is rife with stress, which calls on us to be resilient. However, our sedentary lifestyles and type A mindsets, along with our intensive use of computers and smartphones, have set us up for physical, mental and emotional imbalances. Yoga can address all of these, but this article focuses mainly on the physical aspect.

Before you train any client, it’s important to know what the person’s starting point is, which is why all good programs start with a postural and movement assessment. Postural analysis is the science of understanding the body’s alignment in relationship to gravity and knowing the optimal structural relationship for creating good posture and harmonious movement (St. John & Puleo 2017). Assess clients first in static positions, then dynamically, to identify misalignments and patterns. A trained eye will immediately see compensations and imbalances, which will inform selection of the repertoire.

STATIONARY ASSESSMENTS

Perform a static postural assessment by viewing the body from the front, back and side. Observe alignment irregularities and asymmetries by noticing the positioning and relationship of the head, shoulders, spine, hip, legs and feet in three dimensions. If aligned optimally while standing and moving, the bones and joints are organized in a way that allows the muscles, connective tissues and nervous system to support them effectively. Taken as a whole, this alignment supports the body against gravity and external forces.

With keen observation in mind, let’s look at mountain pose, also known as tadasana or anatomical position. This “blueprint” pose is the foundation for all standing poses (Crow 2015; Kappmeier & Ambrosini 2006). It may seem like simply standing, but you can gather a lot of information about clients from viewing them in this static position. The “work” is bringing the skeleton, with its unique attributes, into neutral alignment (Crow 2015). While not an exhaustive list, here are some things to look for:

  • Begin your observation with a global perspective of the body. Stand back and observe the client’s overall posture (shoes off).
  • Next, examine the feet and ankles, the foundation for the rest of the body’s alignment. Notice if the feet are firmly planted. Is weight distributed equally through the entire foot, or does the foot roll out (supination) or in (pronation)? If so, is the misalignment excessive?
  • Look at the knees. Is the patella facing forward, or does it turn in (genu valgum) or out (genu varum)?
  • Review pelvic placement for excessive posterior or anterior tilt, tipping or rotation.
  • Observe shoulder positioning. Is the humeral head sitting in the joint’s center?
  • Finally, check head and neck alignment. Does the client exhibit forward-head posture? The head should be balanced over the trunk. From a side view, the ear should line up with the center of the shoulder, the rib cage, the high point of the iliac crest, and the midpoint of the lateral knee; the ear should be just forward of the lateral malleolus of the ankle.

Use this assessment as a starting point for choosing poses and sequences for the client’s program.

DYNAMIC ASSESSMENTS

Next, assess movement with an eye toward existing patterns that may offer clues to physical limitations and habitual compensations. Keep in mind that each body is unique in its design and that ideal alignment is a broad definition.

“When we assume that we can generate a final and complete analysis of the unique and complex sequences of muscular action that are expressed in each person’s movement choices, we create obstacles and limit the ways that new choices can arise,” write Leslie Kaminoff and Amy Matthews in their book Yoga Anatomy (Human Kinetics 2012). “If we instead observe with a mind open to possibilities, examining each person’s pattern becomes an opportunity to witness the incredible variety of ways that we can successfully execute the simplest actions.”

When you cue a client through a set of linked moves, you can identify dysfunctional patterns. For example, a simple, modified sun salutation with an added spinal rotation will reveal some of the client’s strengths and weaknesses.

  • Closely observe mobility limitations, stability vs. instability, bilateral and unilateral deviations, and overall movement capacity.
  • During the initial standing forward bend, assess tightness in the back line of the body.
  • When the client sits back into chair pose, determine imbalances between mobility and stability in the hips, back and shoulders.
  • As the client steps back into lunge, notice any tightness in the hip flexors.
  • During chaturanga (yoga pushup), identify stability, upper-body strength and full-body integration.
  • In upward-facing dog and downward-facing dog, look for tightness and weakness through the entire front and back lines of the body.

All of the above checkpoints can cross over to activities other than yoga.

Observing how someone breathes during movement is another means of assessing tension and discomfort in the body. When mobility is restricted, it’s natural to hold the breath. Yoga breathing techniques can assist in reducing tightness and easing the body into movement. How well the breath connects with fluid movement in yoga says a lot about whether a client’s body systems are balanced and integrated. What is the state of the central nervous system and spine, for example? Are flexion, extension, axial rotation and lateral flexion present? The muscular system creates movement, and the muscles “work together as a matrix of potential movement choices” (Kaminoff & Matthews 2012).

Success in any movement can be measured by the quality of balance throughout the entire body, rather than by range of motion around a single joint. “This quality arises in the skeletal system from the presence of balanced joint space in each joint, the availability of clear pathways for movement through the bones and joints, and the awareness of our individual patterns in the wholeness of the systems of our body,” write Kaminoff and Matthews (2012). See “Movement Assessment Exercises” for more details.

Understanding Muscle Imbalances

Although there are many observable malalignments, the more common patterns include overpronated feet, rounded shoulders, hyperlordosis, a jutting chin, hips shifting to one side and “tech neck.” The work of Vladimir Janda, MD, has been instrumental in understanding the development of muscular imbalances and their implications for spinal alignment, function and pain. Of particular significance to the physiotherapy and fitness industries is Janda’s work in defining two groups of muscles: postural and phasic.

Postural muscles fight gravity to maintain an upright posture and are typically “on,” while phasic muscles are not involved in maintaining posture against gravity and are typically “off.” As a result, postural muscles have tremendous endurance and do not weaken or atrophy quickly; however, they tend to shorten and tighten over time. Unless specifically recruited for a task or activity, phasic muscles, on the other hand, tend to fatigue easily, be weak and atrophy over time.

According to Janda, when phasic and postural muscles are deconditioned, it places an unbalanced load on the spinal column, pelvis and shoulder complex. This can gradually lead to malalignment, abnormal wear and tear, joint dysfunction, and—eventually—pain and disability. Deconditioning allows postural muscles to pull on the spine, either because those muscles are excessively tight or because the phasic muscles opposing the pull are weak. The two major imbalances that Janda describes are lower crossed syndrome and upper crossed syndrome (Janda 1983; Page, Frank & Lardner 2010). See “Examples of Phasic and Postural Muscles”, below, for more.

LOWER CROSSED SYNDROME

Lower crossed syndrome is characterized by short, tight hip flexors and lumbar erector spinae against weak gluteals and abdominals. This imbalance promotes an anterior pelvic tilt, increased lumbar lordosis, hip flexion and limited hip extension during walking (Janda 1983; Page, Frank & Lardner 2010). This syndrome can have any number of causes; however, lifestyle and gravity play key roles. Sitting for long periods of time can exacerbate the imbalance. Some activities, such as cycling, can further increase tightness in these inherently tight muscles. Over time, tightness in the lower crossed syndrome postural muscles will pull on the lumbar spine, increasing tension in the lumbar extensors and inhibiting the gluteal and abdominal muscles, creating a greater imbalance.

Training the lower body requires a balance between tightness in the anterior hip (postural muscles) and weakness in the posterior hip (phasic muscles) for optimal movement. An imbalance in this relationship affects the ability to perform many fitness-based exercises, including squats, lunges, bent-over rows and step-ups. Continual tension in the hip flexor muscles (rectus femoris, iliopsoas) inhibits the opposing muscles of the posterior hip (gluteals). Like the shoulder girdle, the hip joint is complex, and there may be numerous observable movement deviations and imbalances.

UPPER CROSSED SYNDROME

Clients with upper crossed syndrome experience tightness in the levator scapulae, upper trapezius, pectoralis major and sternocleidomastoid and concurrently experience weakness in the lower scapular stabilizers and deep neck flexors (Janda 1983; Page, Frank & Lardner 2010) This imbalance promotes elevated scapulae, rounded shoulders, and a forward-head or “poking chin” posture.

Similar to lower crossed syndrome, this upper-body imbalance is exaggerated by sitting for long periods of time and by working in front of the body, as in texting on a phone, typing on a computer and driving a car. Tight postural muscles exert an inhibitory effect on phasic muscles, further contributing to weakness and muscular imbalances. With this understanding, fitness professionals can use yoga postures to assist with the common tight areas and to increase stability and strength.

Training the upper body requires optimizing joint stability and mobility and training functional movement patterns. The shoulder girdle is a complex structure with an extensive capacity for movement. The shoulder girdle’s joint structures need to move in harmony, and a muscular imbalance puts undue stress on the joint complex. Establishing appropriate shoulder mobility, stability and strength requires doing exercises that decrease tension in the tight anterior shoulder muscles (postural) and strengthen the weaker posterior muscles (phasic).

Yoga Poses to Address Muscle Imbalances

We’ve established that clients and participants present with various pre-existing imbalances that can impede their progress and hinder them from reaching their goals. There are numerous ways to address these challenges, and you should never hesitate to refer out to a physical therapist or other allied health professional when appropriate. However, a well-educated, experienced fitness professional can often address imbalances through intentional movement. Yoga is superb for this; it “provides an extra edge through balance, flexibility, breath and mental sharpness” and “weaves together stretching, strength-building, breathing and balance” (Cunningham 2017).

Movement occurs when a coordinated response from the nervous system creates desired action at a joint. Joint movement in response to muscle activation is a biomechanical event coupled with a physiological event. This is known as reciprocal inhibition (Long 2008). This agonist and antagonist relationship involves muscles contracting and relaxing during movement. Muscular co-contraction must also occur to create stability.

Muscles fall into two basic categories, depending on which action is occurring at a given moment. In the action of extending or strengthening the knee, for example, the quadriceps are the agonists and the hamstring muscles are the antagonists. Conversely, in knee bends the hamstrings become the agonists and the quadriceps become the antagonists. In a seated forward bend, the quadriceps are the agonists and the hamstrings are the antagonists. Contracting the quadriceps signals the hamstrings to relax via a neurological signal, resulting in an excitatory response of the quadriceps and an inhibitory response of the hamstrings (Long 2008).

By nature, many yoga poses require stability, mobility and co-contractions to occur at one time, further grounding yoga’s effectiveness as a tool for supporting optimal performance. For example, warrior I is a complex pose that targets mobility of the anterior and posterior hip, while at the same time requiring strength and stability. The quadriceps muscles of the front leg contract to support the body, while the back leg requires posterior lateral hip stability and strength through the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus. The adductors and hip flexors on both legs require mobility. At the same time, the pose calls for thoracic and shoulder extension with posterior spinal and shoulder stabilization. Warrior I strengthens the phasic muscles and lengthens the postural muscles, making warrior I an excellent yoga pose for addressing lower and upper crossed syndromes and enhancing muscular balance in the body. See sidebars for additional guidance.

An Expanded Tool Box

Although we are teachers and leaders, we are also students and followers. Continuing to learn and expand our knowledge is a lifelong commitment. There is no single training method for improving human performance. As fitness professionals, we have an obligation to be open to the many methods of training that exist and will continue to evolve.

Millions of people practice yoga today, and fitness professionals can pair this diverse practice with other fitness methodologies to enhance clients’ journeys to optimal performance.

Pranayama: THE IMPORTANCE OF BREATH

Part of yoga practice is building your ability to attend, be present and notice what is happening (Clark 2016). The practice of breath awareness guides attention inward. From a yogic perspective, pranayama is the practice of controlling the breath, which is the source of our vital life force. Breath is also the one part of a stress response that can be consciously altered (McGonigal 2009). Fitness professionals can use breathing techniques with clients to decrease stress, manage blood pressure, improve aerobic capacity, and calm the mind and spirit (St. John & Puleo 2017).

Effective breathing is key to performance in any sport, whether it’s lifting weights, cardiovascular training or skill-based movement. The better an athlete’s oxygen exchange, the more efficient that athlete will be. Breath also directs energy through the body, potentially influencing our emotional state; its quality affects the nervous system, increasing anxiety or creating a greater sense of calm.

The diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration (Santos-Longhurst 2018). It forms a dome that attaches to the inside of the rib cage, the spine and the xiphoid process. Respiratory muscles include (but are not limited to) the internal intercostals, scalene muscles, serratus posterior inferior and superior, transversus abdominis, and sternocleidomastoids (Russian 2015). The muscles connected with breathing are an integral part of optimal core functioning, which in turn is linked to injury prevention.

Yoga uses many breathing techniques to facilitate movement, build strength, increase mobility and improve capacity. Linking breath to movement allows for enhanced mobility or stability (example: ujjayi breath). Generally, inhalation facilitates spinal extension, and exhalation facilitates spinal flexion. Either inhalation or exhalation can facilitate lateral flexion or rotation. Exhaling during a challenging exercise helps to activate the trunk stabilizers and “brace” the torso (St. John & Puleo 2017).

Deep breathing techniques practiced in yoga prepare the deep core muscles of the transversus abdominis, multifidus and pelvic floor to function well, taking the focus away from outer core work (i.e., by the rectus abdominis and oblique muscles) (Long 2008). Tightness in the abdominal wall can limit an athlete’s ability to breathe deeply. When expansion of the lower lung space is restricted, we tend to compensate with shallow breathing into the upper lungs. In this situation, muscles that lift the rib cage and expand the space between the upper ribs overwork during inhalation. Those muscles include the sternocleidomastoids (on the front of the neck) and the upper trapezius muscles (on the back of the neck). Overwork makes these tight postural muscles tighter still, leading to a greater imbalance with the phasic muscles.

With practice, you can help clients find a balance in their core muscles that allows them to relax as the diaphragm contracts during inhalation yet keeps them strong enough to support the lower back and assist in exhalation.

MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT EXERCISES

The following yoga postures and exercises are useful for observing a client’s movement patterns and identifying malalignments or restrictions, which will help you determine the best place to start a program. Have your client perform one or more repetitions. The number of repetitions completed is less important than observing the movement pattern.

Chart with yoga poses and tips

FOCUS ON
UPWARD-FACING DOG

Upward-facing dog targets both the postural and phasic muscles involved in upper and lower crossed syndromes and requires anterior shoulder mobility and stability of the entire shoulder girdle. This pose also relies on the thoracic spine’s ability to extend and be mobile while the lumbar spine is stable. The pelvis is stable, while the anterior hip is mobile. This is a good maintenance pose once dysfunction has been properly addressed and resolved.

Yoga Poses for Upper Crossed Syndrome

What is the “cross” in upper crossed syndrome? It’s “the crossing pattern of the overactive muscles with the countercrossing of the underactive muscles” (Miller 2016). The overactive muscles form a diagonal pattern from the posterior neck down and across to the anterior neck and shoulder. The underactive muscles are on the other side and include the deep cervical flexors down toward the mid/lower trapezius, rhomboids and serratus anterior (Miller 2016).

The following poses can assist in addressing upper crossed syndrome because they target the imbalance between mobility and stability of the shoulder girdle, chest and upper back. Teach the postures as a flow-style yoga class, following the order below and holding each pose for three to five breaths, or incorporate individual postures into your current training programs. As with any exercise selection, choose the appropriate yoga pose for the client and offer modifications if necessary.

Sample Yoga Poses for Upper Crossed Syndrome

  • child’s pose
  • cat-cow
  • kneeling rotation
  • baby cobra
  • downward-facing dog
  • upward-facing dog
  • locust
  • reverse cow
  • plank
  • side plank
  • pushup
  • bridge

Note: This is a sample list and not a complete syllabus.

YOGA POSES FOR LOWER CROSSED SYNDROME

In part because of sitting for prolonged periods, many people develop a pattern of over- and underactive muscles in the hip region (front and back). As with upper crossed syndrome, there is a crossing pattern of the overactive muscles with a countercrossing of the underactive ones (Miller 2017).

The following poses address the mobility and stability imbalance that is present in lower crossed syndrome. Perform the moves in the order they are listed or use individual poses to target specific client needs. Based on your comfort level with yoga, teach these poses in a flow sequence, holding each pose for three to five breaths each, or add them to your current warmup, movement preparation, or cooldown and recovery in a typical training session. Modify the yoga poses as needed for the client.

Sample Yoga Poses for Lower Crossed Syndrome

  • standing forward bend
  • low lunge
  • wide-legged forward bend
  • warrior I
  • warrior II
  • triangle
  • extended side angle
  • revolved lateral
  • supine hamstring stretch
  • garland
  • supine hip abduction stretch
  • supine hip adduction stretch
  • supine hip circumduction

Note: This is a sample list and not a complete syllabus.

YOGA FOR OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE: PROGRESSION EXAMPLE

When programming yoga poses for optimal performance, consider the movement pattern you are working to improve. For example, let’s say you are helping a client to increase her ability to do pushups. The following yoga sequence will allow you to assess her progress while she stretches and strengthens the correct muscles to support this exercise. Teach the following sequence step by step over a period of time to ensure that she executes the move safely and correctly and to “embed” the movement pattern in her neuromuscular system.

  • Child’s pose: This resting posture prepares the nervous system and stretches the front of the shoulders, the latissimi dorsi, and the lower back and hips.
  • Cat-cow: This move prepares the spine and introduces mobility to the thoracic spine and hips.
  • Kneeling on all fours with spinal rotation: This actively stretches and prepares anterior and posterior muscles. It stretches muscles on the front of the shoulder girdle and activates muscles on the back of the shoulder girdle.
  • Modified plank (from knees): This pose progressively strengthens the core and upper body.
  • Downward-facing dog: This popular move strengthens the shoulder girdle while stretching the chest, anterior shoulder muscles and latissimi dorsi, as well as the posterior leg and hip muscles.
  • Plank: This full-body and trunk integration pose strengthens the core and is a critical prerequisite pose for pushup.
  • Modified pushup (from knees): This modification is a step toward integrating the body and trunk with upper-body strength and shoulder girdle stabilization.
  • Pushup: This is a full-body strength and stability exercise.
Examples OF POSTURAL AND PHASIC MUSCLES

Postural muscles in upper crossed syndrome:

  • pectoralis major (clavicular/sternal fibers)
  • upper portion of trapezius
  • levator scapulae
  • sternocleidomastoid
  • suboccipitals
  • subscapularis
  • latissimus dorsi
  • arm flexors

Phasic muscles in upper crossed syndrome:

  • serratus anterior
  • rhomboids
  • lower trapezius
  • posterior rotator cuff
  • arm extensors
  • cervical flexors

Postural muscles in lower crossed syndrome:

  • gastric/soleus complex
  • tibialis posterior
  • adductors
  • hamstrings
  • rectus femoris
  • iliopsoas
  • tensor fasciae latae
  • piriformis
  • erector spinae
  • quadratus lumborum

Phasic muscles in lower crossed syndrome:

  • peroneus longus
  • tibialis anterior/posterior
  • vastus medialis and lateralis
  • gluteus maximus
  • gluteus medius/minimus
  • obliques
  • transversus abdominis
  • rectus abdominis

Source: Janda 1983.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCE

Books and Manuals

Farhi, D. 2000. Yoga Mind, Body & Spirit. New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.Lasater, J. 2003. 30 Essential Yoga Poses for Beginning Students and Their Teachers. Berkeley, CA: Rodmell Press.

Schleip, R. (Ed.). 2017. Fascia in Sport and Movement. East Lothian, Scotland: Handspring Publishing.

Vanderburg, H. 2017. Fusion Workouts: Fitness, Yoga, Pilates, and Barre. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Websites

muscleimbalancesyndromes.com

aimhealthyu.com

bandhayoga.com


References

Clark, B. 2016. Your Body Your Yoga. Vancouver, BC: Wild Strawberry Productions.
Crow, A. 2015. Alignment cues decoded: “Tadasana is the blueprint pose.” Yoga Journal. Accessed Sept. 22, 2018: yogajournal.com/teach/asana-cues-decoded-tadasana-blueprint-pose.

Cunningham, R. 2017. Yoga for Athletes. Champlain, IL: Human Kinetics.

Janda, V. 1983. Muscle Function Testing. London: Butterworths.

Kaminoff, L., & Matthews, A. 2012. Yoga Anatomy. Champlain, IL: Human Kinetics.

Kappmeier, K.L., & Ambrosini, D.M. 2006. Instructing Hatha Yoga. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Long, R. 2008. The Key Poses of Yoga: Scientific Keys, Volume 2. New York: Bandha Yoga Publications.

McGonigal, K. 2009. Yoga for Pain Relief: Simple Practices to Calm Your Mind and Heal Your Chronic Pain. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Miller, K. 2016. Upper crossed syndrome: Identifying and applying movement strategies for improved posture. Accessed Oct. 1, 2018: magazine.nasm.org/american-fitness-magazine/issues/american-fitness-magazine-fall-2016/upper-crossed-syndrome-1.

Miller, K. 2017. Lower crossed syndrome starting from center: How to help correct muscular imbalances caused by sitting in place for too long. Accessed Oct. 1, 2018: magazine.nasm.org/american-fitness-magazine/issues/american-fitness-magazine-winter-2017/lower-crossed-syndrome-starting-from-center.

Page, P., Frank, C.C., & Lardner, R. 2010. Assessment and Treatment of Muscle Imbalance: The Janda Approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Russian, C. 2015. The muscles you never think about—until they stop working. Elsevier Connect. Accessed Oct. 19, 2018: elsevier.com/connect/the-muscles-you-never-think-about-until-they-stop-working.

Santos-Longhurst, A. 2018. Diaphragm overview. Healthline. Accessed Oct. 19, 2018: healthline.com/human-body-maps/diaphragm#anatomy-and-function.

St. John, N., & Puleo, J. 2017. Balanced Body®: Movement Principles. Balanced Body Workshop, Sacramento, CA.

Woodyard, C. 2011. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life. International Journal of Yoga 4 (2), 49–54.

Helen Vanderburg

Helen Vanderburg is owner of The ACADEMY fitness studio and teacher training school, the author of Fusion Workouts, and the fitness education manager for Balanced Body®. She is the 2005 IDEA Fitness Instructor of the Year and 2001 Canadian National Fitness Leadership recipient. Vanderburg is an elite athlete as a world champion synchronized swimmer and a member of the Canada and International Sports Hall of Fames.

1 Comment

  1. jorge iván grisales on April 26, 2020 at 2:18 am

    muy agradecido

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