Women, Hormones, Metabolism & Energy Expenditure

What trainers need to know about subtle differences in female physiology.

When it comes to optimal endurance exercise performance, fuel source and utilization play a major role in success. The contribution and expenditure of fats and carbohydrates for the synthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) during exercise are regulated by several factors, including activity, duration and intensity, as well as the person’s age, training status, diet and gender. Proteins contribute a minor 1%–8% of fuel needs during submaximal exercise (Isacco, Duché & Boisseau 2012).

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