From 1998 to 2011: ACSM Publishes Updated Exercise Guidelines

by Len Kravitz, PhD on Sep 27, 2011


Updates that help you to help your clients.

Garber, C.E., et al. 2011. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43 (7), 1334–59.

The new American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand paper on exercise quantity and quality is an update of the 1998 ACSM document on this topic. The new paper cites over 400 publications from scientific reviews, epidemiological studies, clinical studies, meta-analyses, consensus statements and evidence-based guidelines.

The purpose of this ACSM Position Stand is to present evidence-based direction to health and fitness professionals on developing individualized exercise training programs for apparently healthy adults of all ages (Garber et al. 2011). Competent exercise and health professionals can also use these guidelines for people with some chronic health problems or disabilities, incorporating modifications appropriate to these clients’ physical function and health status.

Helpfully, Garber and colleagues have clarified common misunderstandings regarding frequently used fitness terminology (see the sidebar “Exercise Terminology Clarified”).

One of the most compelling sections of the paper is a fact-based review of the numerous health benefits (see Figure 1) conferred by a comprehensive exercise program of resistance, cardiorespiratory, flexibility and neuromotor exercise. Equally impressive is ACSM’s statement that “engaging in regular exercise and reducing sedentary behavior is vital for the health of adults.”

Cardiorespiratory Exercise Design Guidelines

It is important to note that Garber et al. (2011) state that the minimum level of cardiorespiratory fitness required for health benefits may be different for men than it is for women and different for older adults than it is for younger ones. Garber and colleagues also note that sedentary behavior (e.g., sitting at a desktop workstation, watching TV, surfing the Internet) is associated with depression, higher coronary heart disease, increased waist circumference, elevated blood pressure, depressed lipoprotein lipase activity (leading to higher levels of circulating blood triglycerides) and elevated blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol.

The authors state that daily physical activity, exercise and standing movement during the day can help diminish these unfavorable biological effects. The guidelines recommend progressive increases in step counts of ≥2,000 steps (when using a pedometer), to attain a daily step count of at least 7,000 steps. The new cardiorespiratory exercise recommendations are shown in Table 1.

Resistance Exercise Design Guidelines

Higher levels of muscular fitness are associated with reduced risk of all causes of disease, improved cardiometabolic health (a construct that includes a group of risk factors that are indicators of a person’s overall risk for type 2 diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular disease) and reduced risk of developing functional limitations. In fact, Garber and colleagues state in the new ACSM Position Stand that resistance exercise may be an effective intervention in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Very important, they state that the bone-loading stress of resistance exercise may prevent, slow and even reverse the losses of bone mineral and bone mass that occur with osteoporosis.

Program designs should target opposing muscle groups of the chest, shoulders, back, hips, legs, trunk and arms. Clients should perform all exercises with a purposeful, controlled, full range of motion. See Table 2 for new resistance exercise guidelines.

Flexibility Exercise Design Guidelines

Garber et al. 2011 recommend that flexibility programs (including static, dynamic and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation [PNF] methods) should be designed specifically to meet the needs and demands of each individual’s lifestyle. For most adults, flexibility training will improve balance and postural stability. The relationship between flexibility and a reduction of musculoskeletal injury has not been substantiated in the literature. Flexibility exercise guidelines are shown in Table 3.

Neuromotor Exercise Design Guidelines

Neuromotor exercise (i.e., functional exercise) training is advantageous as part of an all-inclusive exercise program for adults, especially older persons. This type of training can improve balance, agility, muscle strength, gait and coordination, and can also reduce the risk of falls. Garber and colleagues conclude that more research is needed to clarify the specific health-related changes resulting from functional fitness training and to determine the effectiveness of different exercise types and amounts. See Table 4 for recommendations.

Final Thoughts

One of the most impressive evidence-based statements in the new ACSM Position Stand is that leadership from well-trained fitness professionals will meaningfully enhance the exercise experience of adults, especially those who are novice exercisers. The fact that a position statement with over 400 cited references highlights the importance of skilled exercise professionals is a true measure of how much we as a profession have grown in the last decade.

IDEA Fitness Journal, Volume 8, Issue 10

© 2011 by IDEA Health & Fitness Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is strictly prohibited.

About the Author

Len Kravitz, PhD

Len Kravitz, PhD IDEA Author/Presenter

Len Kravitz, PhD, is the program coordinator of exercise science and a researcher at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, where he recently won the Outstanding Teacher of the Year award. Len w...


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  • Maria Beall

    I am super excited to attend Len's lectures this weekend at ECA. I am a Health Fitness Specialist with ACSM and I also teach Body Pump. Body Pump is a muscle endurance class using weights. As a fitness specialist, I have many questions about his opinion of Pump, especially as it does not fall into the ACSM guidelines for resistance training. Any opinions out there? I have found that with Pump, you will plateau because it's nearly impossible to increase load due to the excessive reps and the wear and tear on the joints...I would love comments/feedback..
    Commented Nov 07, 2011
  • Sharon Kronberg

    Thank you Len Kravitz for keeping us updated with current research. Exercise is a science, which is why there is a HKN degree. Understanding the science allows fitness professionals the critical tools to design goal oriented 'training' sessions for students and clients - not just a 'workout'. It separates the "professional" from the rest! The public is slowly appreciating the difference.
    Commented Oct 22, 2011

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