Currently, the extreme competitiveness in sport and the constant record-breaking achievements have reached levels never before seen in sports history. Sports equipment and technology have reached the point where restrictions are being implemented to keep the game fairer for all. Pharmacological sports enhancement drugs have been banned in all sports by international sports federations and the psychological input have all but exhausted their methods. What is left for the athlete to optimize performance and still raise the bar of performance?

It is not genetics but rather genomics that leaves us the final avenue of investigation to assist and evolve ultimate sports performance enhancement. The field of nutrition is an untapped market of ultimate investigation waiting to evolve. Whole food nutrition and high-quality individualized supplementation is only the beginning. The “specialty” of sports nutrition currently is hardly individualized; it is rather a combination of questionable science and generalized theories on calories, archaic macronutrient tabulations, and irresponsible myths on levels of hydration.

Nutritional genomics investigates the genes, their functions, and interactions with each other and the environment, e.g. epigenetics, epistatic relationships and nutrigenomics. Nutrigenomics will sculpt the future of unrestricted individualized optimization of sports performance. Biochemical individuality and assessment are the future pillars in the practice of precision sports nutrition. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) largely influence our biochemical individuality, thus will be the key to the investigation.

Artificial intelligence and genomic insights have given us the opportunity to sculpt a nutrition plan exclusively for each athlete. Precision sports nutrition can now determine if a ketogenic diet will be helpful or detrimental to an athlete. Literature supports that some diets like keto could have negative effects on metabolism, while others enhance their performance by implementing it. Genomic insights have unlocked this crucial key to total individualization in nutrition and determining which diet works for what athlete.

The technology and assessment tools to evaluate this individuality is currently available for functional medicine, but not yet utilized in sports performance. The journey of nutritional support and personalized implementation is just about to take off and those joining this approach will reach new levels of optimal sports performance enhancement with their athletes. In the nutrigenomic science, grasping the concept of agonist versus antagonist is invaluable. An agonist (a substance that fully activates the receptor that it binds to) while under other conditions, behaves as an antagonist (a substance that binds to a receptor but does not activate and can block the activity of other agonists). This holds the key in the world of nutrition and supplementation, what nutrient will be an agonist and which one will be an antagonist and for everyone they could be opposite.

What can this level of genomic insight tell us about the athlete’s individual precision nutrition?

    1. Exactly what diet should be followed: ketogenic, paleolithic, or vegan; and specifically if it will have a level of potential harm and/or benefit


    1. Exactly which supplements should be recommended, and which ones should be avoided


    1. Exactly what kind of exercise will be best for the athlete—endurance versus high interval training


    1. Exactly what the risk factors are for certain cancers and chronic diseases, and what preventative measures can be implemented


    1. Circadian rhythms and how we can better implement nutritional and supplemental recommendations for the athlete to enhance recovery through proper restorative sleep


    1. Understanding the level of neurotransmitter conversion from amino acids. This is crucial for psychological performance and a lack of understanding and is often misinterpreted as a psychological issue


    1. Understanding the athlete’s genomic associations to fat metabolism, which fatty acids can be helpful and detrimental to health and performance


    1. Immune modulation, which supplements and nutrients will optimize the athlete’s immune system. This is not a one size fits all approach anymore


  1. Athletic overtraining dangers and the level of susceptibility of stress can be individualized

One man’s food can truly be another man’s poison!

Dr. Oscar Coetzee, MS, DCN

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