Water exercise is a great alternative to treadmill or outdoor walking for people who experience discomfort when training on land.

Findings from a new randomized clinical trial showed that aquatic training can reduce arterial stiffness and increase exercise tolerance, cardiorespiratory capacity and muscular strength in women with PAD. Moreover, adherence to the 12-week program was high among the 72 female participants. More research is warranted.

The study is available in the Journal of Applied Physiology (2019; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00209.2019).