In nearly 40 years as a fitness educator, I have never been sidelined by a significant injury, in spite of decades of high-impact classes, rigorous weight training, participation in competitive aerobics, and group exercise schedules that sometimes exceeded 25 hours per week. I attribute my longevity in this grueling business to one thing—cross-training all aspects of fitness, including flexibility.
We place great emphasis on cross-training cardiovascular and resistance conditioning, but flexibility is still an afterthought on many schedules. Although most facilities provide some kind of flexibility-oriented programming, options are often limited. Yoga is popular, and participants enjoy various degrees of flexibility while practicing it. However, while yoga improves range of motion and some aspects of flexibility, cross-training this aspect of fitness would lead to greater gains.
Today's workouts are dominated by high-intensity, physically challenging movements. The rise of these programs has led to more injuries. A more effective stretching regime could help to minimize damage from overuse. On the other end of the spectrum, sedentary people may be dealing with muscle dysfunction and atrophy, along with limited ROM in some areas of the body. A varied stretching routine may remedy many of their difficulties. Regardless of fitness level, flexibility training is vital. Fascia makes up as much as 30% of a muscle's total mass, and accounts for about 41% of a muscle's total resistance to movement (Rahman et al. 2015). Fascial restrictions contribute greatly to mobility limitations, so a comprehensive program that includes a variety of stretching techniques should be part of any fitness regimen.
There are many different stretching options to choose from, and the right program depends on genetic makeup, personal preferences, injury history, age, gender, weight, body type and activity level. Because movement occurs through many planes, not just forward and backward, it's beneficial to stretch in as many positions as possible. Not all techniques are right for everyone, and some stretches are contraindicated for people with specific injuries; however, mixing and matching leads to the best results. Here are some of the most popular choices:
- Ballistic stretching uses a fast bounce to push the body beyond its normal ROM. While this practice may be beneficial for certain athletes, it can increase the risk of injury for average fitness enthusiasts.
- Dynamic stretching employs active movements through full ROM to stretch and prepare muscles and joints for activity. It helps to increase blood and oxygen flow to soft tissues prior to exertion.
- Active Isolated Stretching involves extending a muscle, holding that position for 2 seconds and then returning to the starting position. This targets and lengthens the muscle without triggering the protective stretch reflex and subsequent reciprocal antagonistic muscle contraction, since the isolated muscle achieves a state of relaxation. If stressed too far too fast, however, the body will react. Therefore, AIS calls for multiple repetitions to build the body's awareness.
- Passive stretching uses outside assistance to achieve results. This "assistance" could be body weight, a strap, leverage, gravity, another person or
a stretching device. The key is to relax through the stretch while continuing to maintain pressure as the muscle lengthens.
- Reciprocal inhibition involves stretching a muscle and then actively contracting the opposing muscle group. With this technique, you relax the muscle you're trying to stretch, and you rely on the opposing muscle(s) to initiate the stretch.
- Static stretching requires holding a stretch in a challenging but comfortable position for a period of time, somewhere between 15—90 seconds.
- Isometric static stretching involves no movement. The technique is based on tensing the muscles that are being stretched.
- Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) is a more advanced form of flexibility training that involves stretching and contracting targeted muscles. It consists of a passive stretch, then a muscular force or contraction, and finally a second, deeper passive release.
- Myofascial release uses stretching, compression, direct pressure and other techniques to release restricted areas of fascia, ideally creating a biochemical and mechanical change that allows for more efficient movement. Foam rollers and other niche products assist in targeting and releasing the tissue.
In almost all cases, warm up the body before stretching. Taking a few minutes to raise core temperatures before participants stretch will optimize results. (There are some exceptions when working on a specific area without a warm-up may be helpful. For example, if plantar fasciitis is an issue, it may help to roll a ball beneath the arch of the foot first thing in the morning and several times throughout the day to increase circulation and reduce pain and inflammation.)
When there is limited time to stretch, focus. Sometimes you need to prioritize the muscles that worked hardest that day. For example, in indoor cycling classes, concentrate on the legs and lower back.
Encourage attendees to diversify. Mention how important it is to add something different to an existing flexibility routine.
Go primal. Include some dynamic floor training or "animal" movements such as bear crawls, monkeys, froggers and crab walks to challenge flexibility in motion and to cross-train the body. Incorporate these exercises throughout class to maintain intensity. Be prepared to offer alternatives for those who are not quite ready for this advanced form of flexibility training.
Catch people early. In group exercise, many of us have experienced participants leaving just as class is winding down and it's time to stretch. Sneak in some stretches early on and throughout the workout, so everyone benefits from this important element of total fitness.
Be strategic. Dynamic flexibility work is another wonderful way to actively stretch the muscles and increase ROM. Although this technique is used primarily in the warm-up, you can add movements between weightlifting sets to improve muscle recovery and increase joint mobility. For example, after a set of heavier shoulder presses, pick up a lighter weight and do full-ROM arm circles at a slow pace.
Reaping the Rewards
There are two major contributing factors that affect flexibility: genetic predisposition/physical makeup, and training. Additional factors—such as injuries, overuse, underuse, and internal/external temperatures, among others—may also contribute to inflexibility and mobility challenges. It's obvious that some people have better natural flexibility than others; however, improvements can be significant, ranging from 20%—25%, with effective stretching (Humphries 2010). Regardless of which techniques you choose, combining methods will often improve performance, recovery and overall physical wellness.
Share the following cues and tips with your participants for best cross–training results:
- Combine stretching techniques and see which ones work best for you.
- Breathe in a manner that feels natural or enhances the techniques. Do not hold your breath.
- Test your flexibility, and document any positive or negative changes to keep things in check. Create a journal or take pictures/video.
- Take your muscles only to a position where you can remain relaxed, never to a point of intense pain.
- Stretch both sides of the body equally. If there is a need to focus on one specific area, add isolated work.
- Regardless of the technique, start slowly and add intensity appropriately. The body will adapt, and tolerance will increase.
- Don't stretch tendons and ligaments to a significantly greater length, as this could compromise joint stability.
- Be cautious and apply good judgment when using myofascial release techniques. Going too hard or overworking a particular area can cause damage and inflammation. If you are sore days after you roll, or you are bruised, back off.
- Stay well–hydrated.
Diversify training by incorporating some of these additional methods into your flexibility programming:
Progressive stretching. Start with a stretch, but go through multiple repetitions with lighter, medium, then harder pressure. Once you find the deepest hold position, take a deep breath and back off, exhale, compress and push a little deeper. Repeat 3–5 times.
Controlled rotation. Apply additional pressure through the entire ROM for hips, shoulders, ankles, etc. Example: Lie supine and hold a strap under one foot. Rotate the leg in a 360-degree motion in a deliberate, slow manner that works the entire ROM of the joint.
Repositioning. Stretch the same muscle group from multiple positions. This works with almost any stretch.
Example 1: Start in a V-position, seated upright on the floor. Open the legs wide while maintaining straight knees. Bend or press the body over one leg, then in the center, then over the other leg. Open the legs a little wider and repeat. Elevate one of the legs at the ankle on a foam roller and repeat. Repeat the sequence on the opposite side.
Example 2: While doing a hamstring stretch on the floor with legs extended, bend forward, flex the feet, tighten the quads, externally and internally rotate the legs out from the hips, then push the torso to the outside of both legs to hit multiple positions.
Stretching does not require a huge time commitment, but adding new techniques to your repertoire can have a big impact! Although studies show mixed results and do not emphatically prove that the list below is true for all individuals, the benefits of diverse flexibility training with increased frequency are measurable.
Cross–training flexibility may
- encourage faster recovery after exertion;
- reduce delayed–onset muscle soreness;
- build and elongate muscle;
- increase balance and spatial awareness;
- reduce risk of injury;
- reduce muscle tension and adhesions;
- improve muscle performance and strength;
- allow for better ROM and joint mobility;
- enhance muscular coordination;
- increase blood circulation;
- improve overall muscle relaxation; and
- enhance overall sense of wellness.
Humphries, C. 2010. How much can you really increase your muscle flexibility if you have naturally tight muscles? Boston.com. Accessed Jan. 16, 2017. http://archive.boston.com/news/health/articles/2010/06/21/how_much_can_you
Rahman, S., et al. 2015. Load–deformation changes in plantaris muscle after exposure to different ultrasonic frequencies. World Journal of Medical Sciences 12 (2), 155—61.>/p>
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