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The Elbow Joint

By Catherine Logan, MSPT | June 30, 2006 |

Anatomy Review

The elbow is a “hinge” joint formed by the distal end of the humerus and the proximal ends of the radius and ulna bones. The elbow moves into flexion and extension. The trochlea and capitulum of the humerus articulate with the trochlear notch of the ulna and the radial head, respectively.
The specific articulations of the elbo…

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The Ankle Joint

By Catherine Logan, MSPT | May 31, 2005 |

The bones involved in ankle articulation include the tibia, fibula and talus. The tibia and fibula are the long bones of the lower leg; the fibula, a relatively thinner bone, is lateral to the tibia. These two bones are bound together by the ligaments and the interosseous membrane.

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The Lumbar Spine

By Catherine Logan, MSPT | April 30, 2005 |

Anatomy Review

The spinal cord begins as an extension of the brain. It is surrounded by the bony vertebral column, which acts as a protective mechanism. Any information (sensory or motor) that the brain needs to relay to the body travels via the spinal cord. Fortunately, the spinal cord is protected by vertebrae, so spinal-cord injuries are not common, and most …

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The Shoulder, Part IV

By Sue Hitzmann, MS | September 30, 2004 |

The past three Fine Anatomy articles have examined movements of the shoulder and the shoulder girdle. Because the shoulder is an immensely complex structure, personal trainers must invest a significant amount of time and effort learning its “functional pathologies” and understanding basic anatomy in order to create sound exercise program design.

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The Shoulder, Part III

By Sue Hitzmann, MS | April 30, 2004 |

The arm (upper limb) rotates medially and laterally about a vertical axis (through the long axis of the humerus). This motion is produced by contraction of the rotator muscles along with other muscles of the upper limb.

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The Shoulder Complex, Part II

By Sue Hitzmann, MS | February 29, 2004 |

TThe multiarticular complex of the shoulder gives rise to the dynamic movement potential of the arm at the glenohumeral joint. If it were not for the physiological necessity of the scapulo-thoracic “joint” (discussed in the previous Fine Anatomy column, “The Shoulder Girdle,” IDEA Personal Trainer, October 2003, p.36) and its role during abduction or flexion of the upper limb to elevate, rotate, tilt and swivel, the elementary movements of the arm would be greatly limited.

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The Shoulder Girdle

By Sue Hitzmann, MS | October 1, 2003 |

The closer we look at movement or the potential movement of the human body, the more dynamic, intricate and specific it becomes. When studying the appendicular skeleton, personal trainers will benefit from understanding ideal range of motion (ROM), joint articulation and the influence of the axial skeleton on limb action. The Scapula and Stance The…

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The Great Abs Debate

By April Durrett | September 30, 2003 |

The Great Abs DebateIf you’re up to snuff on your anatomy and physiology, you know that the rectus abdominis is a single muscle. However, you may have found yourself caught up in the debate about whether you can train the upper and lower portion in different ways.

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Ankle Flexion and Extension

By Sue Hitzmann, MS | February 1, 2003 |

Because the ground constantly has variables, human feet need to adapt to their interface with it immediately on contact. In normal function and anatomical position, the ankle joint has extension (dorsiflexion) and flexion (plantar flexion). All other movements in the ankle region are created by the foot’s dynamic joint structure. The ankle is composed of…

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The Spinal Extensors

By Greg Roskopf, MA | December 31, 2002 |

This is the eighth in a series of articles that address how muscles work synergistically to create efficient movement at each joint. The previous article examined the muscles that support the thoracic spine; this discussion covers the posterior muscles of the cervical spine. The cervical spine’s muscle functions are more intricate and delicate than those…

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When Clients Feel Pain

By Greg Roskopf, MA | January 31, 2001 |



By Greg Roskopf, MA

When Clients Feel Pain
How can you identify muscle imbalances that contribute to discomfort or distress?


s personal fitness trainers, we recognize our role as specialists in exercise maintenance. On a daily basis, we set up exercise programs designed to help our clients reach their fitness goals. With the educational background and the skills we possess, trai…

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