Hi Karen. My answer to this would be a simple one “any exercise that the client’s physician says is contraindicated based on that person’s condition.” Every person is different and so when working with a client with a health condition, ALWAYS first check with their treating physician for clearance and recommendations as to proper exercise for them.
I hope that this helps.
First and foremost, confer with your client’s physician with the exercise plan that you come up with. And also, hopefully, with a physical therapist who’s working with your client
Clearly, emphasize upper body–pecs, traps, rhomboids, deltoids, biceps, triceps. grip strength. Lower body–quads, hamstrings, gastroc-soleus, anterior compartment.
When you can begin to include abdominal and lower back strenthening exercises is at the discretion of your client’s physician, but as time goes by you may be able to incorporate them into your client’s workout program.
Take care, Daniel
IDEA has an excellent article about exercise modification for osteopenia/osteoporosis. While it is under the heading of Pilates, it has excellent information about the disease itself and precautions to be taken. The link is https://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/pilates-osteoporosis.
Do not forget, though, that you need to do a fitness assessment first which will be the initial determination of your exercise selection.