Nearly all of the research in this search says there is either no statistical difference in effectiveness or “The diminished force output suggests that the overload stresses required for strength training necessitate the inclusion of resistance training on stable surfaces.”
Daniel, thanks for the response. I think what a lot of this is saying is regardless of trained or untrained, a lot of times the surface may be inferior.
It might even be more so for competitive athletes. The farther away from the actual surface and environment of the sport, the less specific the exercise is (the principle of specificity). Balance being task specific rather than a general skill or adaptation. Do you have some examples of the research you’re talking about?