Hello Radha Lorca,
Depending on the person’s weight, they may not need to add resistance to walking, which is one of the best things to do. Add intermittent jogging as they progress.
Instead of forward flexion, the proper form of one leg deadlift can be utilized, also known as the golfer’s lift.
Balance work to prevent falls is paramount.
You also want to avoid high intensity jumping, and squats to the side.
Avoid spinal bending, twisting and compression.
Other than that, go with how the person feels and avoid what causes pain.
Stair ascending/descending is a good exercise.
I would hit all the main muscle groups with low to medium intensity resistance to start: bi, tri, chest, back, quad, ham, calf, shin, abs, low back and shoulder.
Natalie aka NAPS 2 B Fit.
the guidelines for osteoporosis are tricky: avoid spinal flexion. It always makes me wonder how anybody would ever manage to get a dish out of the dishwasher.
My first recommendation pertains to aerobics weight bearing exercise. I tend to go with things a client enjoys because it helps with compliance. Walking or elliptical trainers are great.
A de-conditioned person with osteoporosis often has a very weak support structure in the core, hip and shoulder girdle. Standing hip exercises with elastic resistance and strengthening the upper back with pulldowns or rowing are a good start. I also include rotator cuff exercises. Shoulder problems are rampant in older adults, and that is a good precaution.
Where you take it from there depends entirely on the clients. Some are very scared, and you will have a hard time getting them to work out at the intensity necessary to actually improve BMD but you may get to the point where you prevent further loss.
I think the best exercise maybe the right combination of nutrition and vitamins. As for excercises;
-elliptical training machines
-walking (either outside or on a treadmill machine)
-moderate weight liftin (Lower body)
Check out this link for the nutrition;
Have a great day!
If your client is a novice to exercise DO NOT focus on improving BMD for at least the first 3 months. The guidelines for osteoporosis are aggressive and if you do them right off the bat, you might break the bones.
Instead, focus on improving muscle endurance – lighter weights, higher reps. This will also improve BMD to some degree but the main goal here is to improve muscle endurance as well as ligament and tendon strength, foster exercise adherence and get them used to working out regularly.
multi joint exercises are best for osteoporosis. When it comes to improving BMD, know that it may take a year before they may see a significant difference on medical tests. I have met people who reversed their osteoporosis through proper exercise.
ACE has a very good book for special populations and the ACSM does too. The Resources Page on my site has links to those and many other things that can help you
I hope some of this helps
Joe Cannon MS CSCS
I would actually put resistance training first (squats may be contraindicated if there is osteoporosis of the spine), as you need to put stress on the bones without putting stress on the spine or affected joints (tricky). A good basic strength training program can help slow the rate of bone loss.
Hiking is great; but instead of a backpack I would encourage a weighted vest (once they are conditioned). If they have full blown osteoporosis, tennis, golf and other fast pivoting sports like basketball, and any type of jumping or burpees may be contraindicated. Pushups may also be risky if it is in the wrist. You should of course talk with their physician first, but I have found many physicians spectacularly uninformed when it comes to osteoporosis. They just tell their patients to exercise, and many do not seem aware of the caveats about forward flexion and fast twisting motions (such as those from golf and tennis). A good resource is a PT who specialized in it.