Why does mankind wage war against one another
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Why does mankind wage war against one another
I have my doubts about the possibility of elminating fighting (I not including in violence or warfare anything that occurs on the basis of insanity--only violence that occurs on the desperation or malice of peoplDonnellye who can make moral judgments). Aggression (violence whose aim is competition or elimination and not predatory violence) is something hard-wired into all species that can move and interact, and it only comes out between members of the same species or, rarely, between members of species that closely share niches. And you right that it relates to the survival of the fittest. That because the members of your same species are competitors to you for mates and resources because they share your niche. So sometimes, even while there are intense pressur Replica Tissot Watches es to cooperate, it seems worth it to eliminate a competitor or two. And even if you don feel the pressure to give into aggression, you always fear that someone else will (why else do we buy locks for our homes? Or avoid strangers at night?) and fear lends itself to more aggression (even if you a proponent of gun control, how much more likely would you be willing to use deadly force if you saw a stranger start running at you in a dark alley?). There will always be instances when aggression will pay at least in the short term. War is much harder to define. While everyone accepts state on state violence, there lots of other instances of fighting that we could consider warfare. For example, did the Waco stand-off between Branch-Davidians and the federal government count? Or do gang rivalries and violence count? I would say yes, and I say yes mostly because there are some theorists (such as the discredited anthropologist Margaret Mead) that want to declare wars to be inventions by modern states to channel people aggression into an activity that useful for the state. I disagree because I believe that organized or semi-organized aggression is something that human beings naturally do when faced with the possibility of aggression--cooperating for the purpose of aggression. You cooperate becaues a band of people with guns is more effective than a single person with a gun. And you engage in aggression together because it still pays to take mates and resources from other people. And that why I think wars can still be preventable even if they the natural result of our urge to aggression. There a theory of development and statehood that claims that how value is created in a society is a prime factor in determining how much warfare that society faces. Namely, it classifies a country wealth in terms of how "lootable" it is. The more lootable a country wealth the more likely it is to be attacked. And this seems to hold true. Look at Sudan, Iraq, and much of the Middle East. Wealth there comes primarily from oil, (or from other raw materials), which is very lootable. Whoever physically holds onto oil, regardless of how they came to acquire it, holds the value behind it. And so people are willing to grab oil at any cost, and steal it from each other if possible. And in fact, those areas are in a pretty consistent state of war. Primarily agricultural societies come next because much of their wealth is still lootable, but the fact that it requires tools and must be constantly produced means that cooperation is much more likely. Add to that the fact that wealth is more widely distributed and so state protection is also more robust. And primarily industrial societies are even less likely to be attacked because even if you hold on to capital assets, you still need workers to work that capital. And knowledge-based economies even less so, because the worker himself becomes the primary value-maker without requiring external physical assets. Now why does this matter? Because trade and development can directly reduce warfare. Trade and development push societies to become primarily industrial, and then primarily knowledge-based industries.
And societies that trade with each other both increase the speed of mutual development and incentivize cooperation (the trade) over aggression (why kill or loot a wealthy trading partner when doing so directly reduces the amount of value you can glean from him?). And look at how true this is. When was the last time any of the Western European (EU-affiliated, so they all extremely developed and trade with each other a lot) countries fought against each other? World War II, over 60 years ago! And this includes country pairs like France and UK and France and Germany, who historically have hated each other guts. And when was the last time the USA or Japan fought against a Western European country or each other? Also WWII, also 60 years ago. Trade and development are absolutely key to maintaining world peace because it disincentivizes our natural urges for organized aggression in favor of organized cooperation. And it true at home too. Everyone knows that the key to reducing gang violence is to give inner city youth access and encouragement to good education and good jobs--the problem lies only in implementation. So I think that with the current rate of economic development and trade in the world, it actually possible that we can eventually elminate most forms of organized violence. But none of this is set in stone, a lot of it depends on how much we willing to let countries develop (the domestic policies of large developed countries often have huge effects on the development cycles of small poor countries) and whether or not we decide to expand or block trade. And even if we do end up one day at that great moment where we elminated warfare, I have my doubts about its sustainability. All it takes is one resource crisis, one reason for us to compete rather than cooperate on the large scale for some essential, and warfare will rear its ugly head again.
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