A purported rise in yoga-related injuries in the United States has stimulated a firestorm of discussion in the yoga community, as well as a national media blitz. Over the past 20 years, yoga has expanded in popularity in the U.S. and throughout the world, bridging the gap from young to old, novice to athlete, healthy to disease-ridden and wealthy to underprivileged. While this growth is generally considered positive, the same is not true of an increase in yoga-related injuries. Here are some expert tips to make sure you are cultivating a safer teaching and practice environment.
How to Teach Yoga Safely
Experts offer many suggestions for improving asana teaching and practice safety.
- Obtain a medical release before participating in yoga if a medical issue is present.
- Use props as needed to support modifications.
- Wear comfortable, breathable clothing and use sticky mats or sticky socks to avoid slips.
- Avoid overeating before class and stay hydrated by drinking water as needed.
- Limit external distractions like loud noises or visual stimuli that can disrupt concentration.
- Ensure good visibility and acoustics so teaching instructions are seen and heard clearly.
- Provide safe room temperatures suitable for participants.
- Provide water.
- Limit class size to permit enough space for postures that require more movement or that may result in someone taking a tumble (e.g., headstand, shoulder stand or other arm-balancing positions). Make sure all floor and wall surfaces are safe.
Individual Limits and Behaviors
- Encourage students to develop a sense of embodied movement and to take responsibility for what they are experiencing in their own bodies.
- Know (students and teachers alike) who should not do inversions; for example, people with glaucoma, a detached retina or high blood pressure. Also know who should not do backward bends or put pressure on the cervical spine; pregnant women as well as individuals with osteoporosis, high or low blood pressure, inner-ear problems or known degenerative problems are at greater risk for injury.
- Promote mindfulness or present-state awareness. Accept that there is a learning curve and that a progression is required to all stages and expressions of a pose.
- Discourage use of force or extreme effort to achieve a body position; instead, encourage attunement to inner body signals and the breath to find alignment that is in harmony with the body’s true capacities at that moment and that provides a feeling of comfortable effort.
- Undertake special training before teaching children, prenatal or postpartum women or anyone with a medical or chronic condition.
- Explain to participants that for some body types and genetic predispositions, the full expression of certain postures may never be possible, but that does not mean that modified versions do not offer multiple benefits.
- Foster a safe, noncompetitive environment in which each participant is encouraged to work at his or her own pace and is provided with personalized options.
- Provide a thorough warm-up with attention to active range of motion for all joints.
- If a class is too large to provide individual attention during all postures, avoid more risky and/or complex postures in which someone could strain a back, neck, hip or knee.
- Avoid sustained forward bends or pushing to the extreme end range of motion in any position.
- Exercise caution with any flow-style programs, as rapid changes from one posture to another may not allow people time to achieve proper alignment.
- Vary the order of asanas, offer options and teach progressively.
- Stay up-to-date on research in yoga and in biomechanics.
Yoga’s Yamas and Niyamas
Experts suggest that both teachers and students alike can look for guidance on how to practice yoga safely in the traditional yamas (“restraints or don’ts”) and niyamas (“observances or dos”).
For more on the yamas and niyamas, plus an extensive discussion on yoga safety issues, please see “Is Yoga Safe?” in the online IDEA Library or in the July–August 2012 issue of IDEA Fitness Journal.