As a personal trainer, you probably know that exercise has been shown to increase bone strength, as measured by bone mineral density (BMD), in people of all ages. But did you know that the degree to which exercise improves BMD depends on a variety of factors, including age, reproductive hormone status, nutritional status and the nature of the exercise?
Bart Staal, J., et al. Graded activity for low-back pain in occupational health care: A randomized, controlled trial. 2004. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140 (2), 77-84.
Background. Low-back pain is a common medical and social problem frequently associated with disability and absence from work. However, data on effective
return to work after interventions for low-back pain are scarce.
The sources for the case studies in the first part of this article are case law and anecdotes from industry professionals. Today most cases are settled out of court and therefore never actually create case law. These examples are valuable because they illustrate typical day-to-day areas of risk exposure in personal training. The second part of the article addresses risk-management strategies for each of these concerns.
Numerous recreational exercisers complete their
cardiovascular and strength training workouts either during the same training session or within hours of each other. This sequential exercise regime is referred to as “concurrent training.” The question often asked of personal fitness trainers (PFTs) is whether performing cardiovascular exercise prior to strength training will compromise the strength training performance. A recent publication by Sporer and Wenger (2003) addresses this question, as well as some related training issues.
Now there’s yet another group that benefits from exercise: people with chronic heart failure. Properly supervised exercise programs improve the survival of this population, according to new research in the January 24, 2004, issue of the British Medical Journal.
Do you have clients with severe osteoarthritis (OA) who want to improve their strength and function? You may want to encourage them to exercise in the pool, according to a study from the December 2003 issue of the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (vol. 62, pp. 1162-7). This study’s findings indicate that people with OA can exercise at much higher intensities than popularly believed.
Jakicic, J.M., et al. 2003. Effect of exercise duration and intensity on weight loss in overweight, sedentary women. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 290 (10), 1323-30.
Study. In a 12-month trial, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh compared the effects of different durations and
intensities of exercise on weight loss and cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary, overweight women.
If you train elderly clients, you’re aware that preventing falls is a key motivation for them to exercise. Now there’s news that the elderly can tolerate high-force eccentric strength training and that it can decrease their risk for falls, according to research in the May 2003 issue of The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (vol. 58, pp. 419-24).
Have you ever noticed that the media are constantly reporting findings from yet another nutrition research study? Knowing which types of studies are the most reliable is helpful, according to Rachel Johnson, PhD, MPH, RD, who presented on this topic at an American Dietetic Association (ADA) meeting. IDEA author Cathy Leman, RD/LD, draws on the ADA session to explain the different types of research, from the most to least reliable.