Muscle hypertrophy, or muscle cell enlargement, is a topic of great debate and interest in all fields of health, fitness and sports. How the body responds to muscular overload to elicit muscle growth is still under much scientific investigation.
Garber, C.E., et al. 2011. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43 (7), 1334–59.
According to a study in the Annals of Internal Medicine (2014; 160 , 517–25), close to 21 million adults aged 20 and older had confirmed diabetes in 2010, and some sectors of the population were more likely than others to develop the disease.
Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, the scientists looked at diabetes rates and diagnosis among adults in 1988–1994 and 1999–2010.*
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website (www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/facts.htm), 1 in every 3 adults has high blood pressure. A recent report suggests that isometric exercise—in which joint angle and muscle length do not change during muscular contraction—can be used to reduce and manage blood pressure.
Many athletes like to “psyche up” as part of their precompetition ritual, but does this really make a difference? And is one psyching-up method more effective than another? According to new research, imagery—visualizing oneself performing a task to the best of one’s ability—seems to be the most effective approach, at least for running sports.