The bones involved in ankle articulation include the tibia, fibula and talus. The tibia and fibula are the long bones of the lower leg; the fibula, a relatively thinner bone, is lateral to the tibia. These two bones are bound together by the ligaments and the interosseous membrane.
The spinal cord begins as an extension of the brain. It is surrounded by the bony vertebral column, which acts as a protective mechanism. Any information (sensory or motor) that the brain needs to relay to the body travels via the spinal cord. Fortunately, the spinal cord is protected by vertebrae, so spinal-cord injuries are not common, and most ...
The structure of the hip joint consists of the acetabulum (socket) and the femoral head (ball). The acetabulum is the socket in the pelvis formed by three innominate bones: the ilium, the ischium and the pubis. The socket faces la...
Do any of your clients have asthma or some other type of chronic pulmonary condition? You may want to schedule their next sessions later in the day. A study presented in October at the annual convention of the American College of Chest Physicians found that lungs function best in the late afternoon.
The study looked at 4,835 patients over a 5-year period. Participants underwent several...
The past three Fine Anatomy articles have examined movements of the shoulder and the shoulder girdle. Because the shoulder is an immensely complex structure, personal trainers must invest a significant amount of time and effort learning its “functional pathologies” and understanding basic anatomy in order to create sound exercise program design.
The arm (upper limb) rotates medially and laterally about a vertical axis (through the long axis of the humerus). This motion is produced by contraction of the rotator muscles along with other muscles of the upper limb.
TThe multiarticular complex of the shoulder gives rise to the dynamic movement potential of the arm at the glenohumeral joint. If it were not for the physiological necessity of the scapulo-thoracic “joint” (discussed in the previous Fine Anatomy column, “The Shoulder Girdle,” IDEA Personal Trainer, October 2003, p.36) and its role during abduction or flexion of the upper limb to elevate, rotate, tilt and swivel, the elementary movements of the arm would be greatly limited.